• A recent study by economists at the University of Massachusetts examined low-wage and low income work in the United States over the thirty year period 1979-2009. This study defined “low-wage” as an hourly wage less than two-thirds of the state median hourly wage, and “low income” as a family income less than 200% of the official poverty level. The 34% rate for employed single mothers was almost triple the 12.5% rate for all employed persons, and almost double the 18% rate for employed single fathers.